Literature review

I. Introduction
A.    Practice Effectiveness Question
State your practice effectiveness question and why you chose it. Your paper should begin with a sentence stating: My practice-effectiveness question is: What is the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy on children with oppositional defiant disorder?   
B.    Key working Definitions
State the key working definitions for the key terms in your practice effectiveness question. Your working definitions ideally should come from a research source like DSM V, an article, or a book. DO NOT COPY and PASTE a complete DSM definition. You should paraphrase/ put in your own words. The same applies if you are using a definition from an article or book.

C.    Nature and Prevalence of the Problem
State nature and extent of the problem, including three sub-sections: key statistics on prevalence and incidence; major causes; and major consequences. These subsections relate to the behavior in your practice-effectiveness question, not the intervention.

It is suggested you have a separate sub-heading for Prevalence, Major Causes and Major consequences.

Statistics should come from government websites or equivalent credible sources. Causes and consequences must come either from governmental websites or articles. It is not sufficient to only site the source. Each cause and consequence must be addressed in a separate paragraph with at least one study described that validates it as a cause or consequences.  The study description should include the authors’ last names and data of publication (in APA format), where and when it occurred, sample size, data sources (database, survey, intervention & measures if an intervention study), and results, with p values, if quantitative.

It is recommended the for the major causes and major consequences you begin each section with a sentence like:  There are _________(number) major causes of _____ (your problem or condition). Then you do one short paragraph on each cause or consequence, as appropriate, with the required description of the supporting study or studies.
II. Search Strategies
Explain which databases you used; keywords used; and number of articles found and used. Also mention number of books and number and names of key websites use
III. Literature Review
A.    Introduction
Give your conclusion regarding what the literature review said about your practice- effectiveness question. One example would be: “The literature review yielded no (or you could say “limited” or “some, depending on the results) significant evidence addressing the question: (insert here your practice-effectiveness question).” In some cases, depending on the findings of the studies, you may want to add a second sentence like: “However, the literature does indicate significant findings on the related issue of  ________________.”
Another scenario might be that the literature review indicates there is significant evidence that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) decreases depression among community-dwelling older women.”
Another scenario might be that the literature review found mixed evidence that _______________________.
IF you did not find ten articles on your PEQ and had to use a related topic in addition to the PEQ, then state so in your introduction, giving a conclusion on each set of articles. Then, in the Review of the Evidence section you would have a sub headed section for articles on your PEQ and then another sub-headed section for articles on your second, separate but related topic. Consult the professor if you are in this situation so you can select an appropriate related topical area. Consult the professor on how to do the Introduction and Review of the Evidence sections if you did not find ten studies on your LR topic. Do this as early as possible.
B.    Review of the Evidence
You must present summaries of ten (10) studies on your practice effectiveness question.
Here is where you present several reasonable-length paragraphs on each research study which, taken together, led to your conclusion about the literature review in Section III. A. Your summary of each research study should start with 1-2 sentences (using APA format) with the authors & date of the source, subject of the study, type (i.e., randomized controlled trial; case study; quasi-experimental study; focus groups, etc.), year(s) conducted, location, sample size and sample description. The next sentence should state the major finding(s). Where you are conveying findings like “significant negative impact”, you must give the quantitative results (i.e., numbers and percentages) from the study, especially if the study compared two groups. Qualitative studies are more difficult to present using quantitative findings. Last you can indicate the major measures (i.e., scales, surveys, etc.) used and whether they were used pre-test, post-test, etc. You can include any individual study limitations either in the individual research study write-ups or, if there is a pattern (i.e., lots of the studies had small samples), in a separate Section III. C.
IV. Discussion and Implications
Here is where you comment on what you feel should be the future direction of either practice, policy, or research (one or more of these topics) on your practice¬ effectiveness question, given what your literature review found.

Review of the Evidence
Here is where you present 1-2 paragraphs on each research study. If any study does not address a specific item required in the summary, just say so. For example: The article did not state date or location of the study.
Your summary of each research study should start with 1-2 sentences (using APA format) with the authors & date of the source, subject of the study, type (i.e., randomized controlled trial; case study; quasi-experimental study; focus groups, etc.), year(s) conducted, location, sample size and sample description. The next sentence should state the intervention(s) used (include name, how often done, length of each session, and total duration) and measures (name and how often administered).
Next is the major results relevant to your PEQ. Where you are conveying results like “significant negative impact”, you must give the quantitative results (p values) from the study, especially if the study compared two or more groups. All quantitative studies must have p values, unless not stated in the article.DO NOT include SD, CI, M, or other result-related findings. Use percentage change results ONLY if there are no p values. Where the study has two or more groups the result, with p values, should be worded something like this: The study found there was a statistically significant decrease in the intervention group compared to the control group (p= ). Last is the limitations of the study as noted in the article. State only the major limitations; be brief; not more than two sentences.

See further the sample summary of the Gitlin study and other guidance that follows in this section.
When presenting your ten summaries please order them by presenting any systematic reviews and meta-analyses first, followed by quantitative studies, and next followed by qualitative studies
For the review of the evidence summaries, please follow these guidelines:

1.    If you are summarizing, as an article, either an article called Systematic Review, Review of Literature, or Meta-Analysis, you write it as one article. You need to state the author(s) names and year of publication; topic; years covered in their review; any inclusion/exclusion criteria; total number the studies reviewed; and only the aggregate results, not results of any individual studies in the review/meta-analysis.
Elias (2020) conducted a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on reducing adolescent depression. The analysis had no geographic limits; covered the period of January 1960-December 2019; found 2,345 studies; and reviewed fifty-two of the studies. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were: (or, if none, say none). Results indicated…………

2.    For individual article summaries in the SUMMARIES.
DO NOT include all the demographics on the study participants, UNLESS your topic includes a specific gender, age, or race/ethnic group. In that case, ONLY the demographic data related to the demographic in your PEQ.
DO NOT include articles which are only study proposed protocols, only theoretical discussions, or only conceptual discussions.
If it is a quantitative study, you need the p values at the end of each sentence on the result. If it is a qualitative study, you need main themes.

If a study addresses your PEQ and other interventions or outcomes, mention that at the beginning of the summary but ONLY summarize the interventions, measures, and results related to your PEQ.

Here is a simple sample summary of a quantitative article:
Gitlin (2006) conducted a randomized controlled trial in Philadelphia in 2004 to study the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral therapy intervention (CBT) on elderly depression. The sample included two hundred persons over 60 years of age randomly selected from six senior centers, with ninety-two randomly assigned to the intervention group and 108 randomly assigned to the control group. The intervention group received one 45-minute CBT session weekly for 8 weeks. The control group followed their usual routine at the senior center. Elderly depression was measured at the first session and every two weeks thereafter using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Results indicated there was a statistically significant improvement in the intervention group compared to the control group from baseline to end of the study (p=.01).
All quantitative studies should have the p values of any relevant results included in your summary at the end of each sentence discussing the result. If you cannot locate the p value, see Dr. Cabin.
3.    Qualitative example: Focus group and interview examples.
Jones and Siegfried (2018) conducted a focus group in Minneapolis, MN in 2015 to gain insights on the meaning of and coping strategies for domestic violence by men against women. The group consisted of ten women who were victims of domestic violence. Participants were select on a convenience basis from the mental health clinic where the researchers were employed. There was one session for 60 minutes. Major themes that emerged included: _____________________   

If an interview-based study, state number of participants, how recruited, average interview length. Everything else is the same as in the focus group example.

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