Paper details: Abstract- An abstract is a high-level summary of the contents of your paper. The abstract is short (6-10 sentences or ~150-250 words) summary of your research paper. An abstract allows readers to quickly ascertain the essence of your paper, and helps readers remember the most important points of your paper. Your abstract should include a summary answering the following questions for your potential reader to review:
What volcano does this paper research?
What are the most important hazards of your volcano?
What risks to proximal communities do these hazards present?
How do you propose to mitigate these risks?
Introduction- The introduction should introduce the reader to your volcano and provide the necessary background to understand the rest of the paper. To do this you will need to include the following topics:
A. Geographic Setting: Introduce your volcano. Where is it located?
B. Motivation: Why is this volcano important to study? For instance, is your volcano particularly active, or particularly close to a population center?
C. Society: What local communities exist within the region surrounding your volcano? Describe population centers, and infrastructure, agriculture, and/or natural resources, that have the potential to be impacted.
D. Tectonic Setting: Describe the location and tectonic setting of your volcano. Address the geologic history of the region. What types of rocks are found in the vicinity of your chosen volcano?
E. Volcanic Geology: Describe the geologic details of your volcano. What type of volcano is it? What is the composition of the lava, and resulting eruption style? Detail the eruption history of your volcano, particularly historic eruptions that have occurred. If there are no historic eruptions, what evidence exists for prehistoric eruptions?
3. Hazard Assessment- A geologic hazard is a natural process that has the capability to inflict damage. Hazards associated with volcanoes extend beyond eruption events. A summary list of volcanic hazards can be found at (https://www.usgs.gov/natural-hazards/volcano-hazards/understanding-volcanic-hazards-can-save-lives Links to an external site.).
Identify the 3 or 4 main hazards associated with your volcano. Explain the causes and effects of each hazard that you identify. For example, if a hazard of your volcano is lava flows, you should describe the reason for the flows, the potential volume of the flows, the average distance traveled, how those flows affect the area they flow over, and so on.
4. Risk Assessment- Risks are distinct from hazards in that they describe the potential damage that a particular hazard may cause. To understand risk, you must know a) the likelihood of that hazard occurring and its magnitude, and b) the presence of people/infrastructure that could be impacted. For each of the hazards you have identified, address the following:
How likely is it that the hazard will occur in the future? Are there estimates on when that could be? Is this hazard catastrophic but infrequent, or frequent and limited in effect?
Which population centers lie within the reach of this hazard? What direct (loss of life, building damage, etc) and indirect (economic effects, environmental impact) damages would afflict local communities if this hazard were to occur?
5. Mitigation Plan- From the hazards you have identified, choose which hazard (or multiple hazards if more than one hazard poses a risk to local populations) you think poses the greatest risk. Propose a plan for future action to mitigate this risk from your volcano, that balances protection with the needs of local communities. Consider the consequences of your plan. As an example, this may be as simple as recommending halting development within a hazard zone, or installing warning sirens to evacuate to high ground in the event of a lahar flow inundating a river valley. You must also consider aspects such as what to do with people who already live there, and whether there are other places that a growing community can expand into.? Assume that you have infinite money/resources at your disposal to enact your mitigation plan.
6. Conclusion- Summarize the main points of your paper. Address the key hazards and risks of your volcano. Motivate the reader to consider your mitigation plan.
7. References- You must refer to at least five reliable, scientific sources in this paper using properly located in-text citations e.g., (Vulcan et al. 79 AD). Provide the full citation in consistent format in a References section at the end of the paper. Remember that a proper citation will include the name of the reference, the date when it was published, the names of the authors, the publication, and, if applicable, the volume and issue number, the website and the date it was accessed, and/aqwor the name of the publisher.
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